Category Archives: computers

How To Keep Your Computer Running Smoothly

Slow Computer

Here’s a situation we have all faced at least once in our lives. We have just bought a new computer, and we’re amazed at how fast and smooth it runs. Unfortunately, very soon our new machine starts to act like an old clunker, no different than the ancient P3 we have had sitting in our basement for years. What?! All that money down the drain? What happened to the ‘Best Performance’ as advertised on the box? Sounds familiar right? Well don’t worry. This computer doesn’t have to go join the P3 in the basement yet. By following a few simple tips, you can give a boost to performance and keep your computer running fast and smooth, just as it was the day you bought it. An additional plus: you can also apply the same tips on that old P3, it won’t magically turn into a Core i7, but it surely won’t be as useless anymore.

Clean out the Windows Registry

The Windows Registry is the central database that contains a massive batch of files that contain information about everything and anything that happens on the computer. Every time you do something on the computer, read a file, save something, install a new program or run an existing one, etc, new information is saved in the registry.

 Sometimes, the registry saves something incorrectly, and over time, these errors can pile up and can start slowing down your PC. By removing these errors either manually or by using a program, you can greatly increase your computer’s performance.

Do Away with Unnecessary Programs and Files

You might have a couple of programs or applications you have not used in a while, or some you don’t need anymore. Now is the time to delete them to get back some valuable memory space, as these programs do little more than take up space on your hard drive. The same applies to files that you don’t want any longer.

Stay Virus Free

If you use the internet regularly, it’s probably just too easy to get infected with computer viruses. There are different kinds of viruses, some of which will slow down your computer’s performance and corrupt your files, while the more dangerous ones will complete destroy your computer’s operating system and will render it useless. Therefore, it is essential that you run virus checks regularly. Always be wary of viruses when downloading stuff online, and don’t click on strange links in email. It is also a good idea to use a firewall when using the internet.

Shut Down Safely

Never turn off the computer before it has shut down completely. Doing so could damage the hard drive or result in data loss, which would invariably affect the performance of your computer.

Remove startup items

Startup items have a big hand in slowing down the average computer. These are the programs that load right after startup, before you even open your first program. To remove startup items, all you have to do is go to System Configuration, and click on the ‘Startup’ tab. A list showing all the startup programs will be shown. Just uncheck the ones you don’t want to open with Windows, and click OK.

Back Up Your Computer

Careful as you are, hardware problems may occur more frequently that you think. Be sure to periodically back up all your data on external media so as not to lose valuable data in case of an accident.


Components of a Computer System


The term ‘Computer’ does not describe a single entity. Instead, a computer is a composition of various units assembled together. Generally, a computer is made up of the following basic components:

  • Hardware
  • Firmware
  • Software

Now, let us describe each component of a computer system in detail:


‘Hardware’ refers to the tangible components of a computer system. It consists of all the physical parts and attributes of a computer system. The computer screen, keyboard, mouse, speakers, microphone, printer and scanner are all examples of hardware. There is also another type of hardware, which cannot be directly seen by the user, but which makes the computer actually run. This hardware normally resides inside the CPU chassis, and can only be viewed when the chassis is removed. Some of the more common hardware parts of the computer are:

  • Mother Board:

Also called a ‘Main Board’, ‘Logic Board’ or a ‘System Board’, the mother board is the primary circuit board that makes up the electronic system of the computer.

  • Central Processing Unit:

This is one of the main components of a computer that reads instructions, processes data, and produces an output of the calculation in computer programs.

  • Random Access Memory:

A RAM is the main memory of the digital computer where the free space is used for manipulating and displaying data. RAM is volatile memory, which means that data is lost when the computer is shut down, unless it is properly saved.

  • Power Supply:

The power supply, as the name suggests, supplies electrical energy to the computer to make it run.

  • Computer Bus:

The bus is used to transfer data, instructions, or power within the various components of a computer, or between multiple computers.

  • CD-ROM Drive:

It is a device that is used to play the CD-ROM, a kind of removable data storage device.

  • Hard Drive:

It is a type of data storage device that stores the data on rotating disks with magnetic surfaces. The hard drive can retain the data even when the power is off.


Firmware is a kind of permanent software present inside ROM chips that controls the internal functions of hardware devices. Firmware boots up computerized or digital devices, as ROM chips are non-volatile, meaning they do not require a power source to hold their contents. This distinguishes firmware from RAM, which loses all of its stored data immediately at shutdown. Most computer devices like printers, scanners, cameras, and USB drives have their own firmware embedded inside them. Firmware may be updated, or it may be replaced in some cases.
The most common firmware in a computer system is the one present inside the Basic Input/ Output System. The BIOS chip on a motherboard holds instructions that help the hardware initialize, and the software programs of a computer including the operating system to load and run, and control the computer. To enter the BIOS setup, press either of the following directly after restarting the PC, before the operating system loads: F1, F2, Esc, or Del.


Software basically means a set of instructions or data. As opposed to storage and display devices that are called hardware, software is anything that is stored electronically into a computer and that which is intangible is called software. There are further 3 kinds of software in a computer system:

  • System Software

System software is a kind of software that is responsible for managing and operating a variety of hardware components, so they can work together properly. It is also responsible for providing a platform for running the programming and application software. Examples of system software include the operating system, device drivers, servers, as well as all the utilities that help the computer function.

  • Programming Software

Programming software includes all the resources and tools that software developers use to create, maintain, debug, and support computer programs or applications. Programming software may include compilers, debuggers, linkers, interpreters, and text editors, that can be combined together in an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) to help a programmer to write computer programs and applications.

  • Application Software

Application software is a kind of software that makes the computer perform specific processes and computations for the user. Examples of application software are word processors, spreadsheet programs, and database management systems.